Spiral spring and gas spring
Helical springs are widely used in independent suspension, especially in front wheel independent suspension. However, in some car rear wheel independent suspension, its spring element also uses spiral springs. Compared with leaf springs, helical springs have the following advantages: no lubrication, no need to dirt the vertical installation space it that needs is not large, and the spring itself has a small mass.
The helical spring itself has no damping effect, so a shock absorber must be installed in the coil spring suspension. In addition, the coil spring can only bear vertical loads, so a guide mechanism must be installed to transfer various forces and moments other than vertical forces.
Coil springs are made of spring steel bar and can be made into equal pitch or variable pitch. The stiffness of the former is constant, and the latter stiffness is variable.
Gas spring is filled with compressed gas in a sealed container, and its spring function is realized by the compressibility of gas. The stiffness of the spring is variable, because when the load acting on the spring increases, the quantitative gas in the container is compressed, and the air pressure increases, the stiffness of the spring increases. On the contrary, when the load decreases, the air pressure in the spring decreases, and the stiffness decreases, so it has an ideal variable stiffness characteristic.
The gas spring has two kinds of air springs and oil and gas springs. Air spring can be divided into cystic and membrane type. Hydro-pneumatic spring includes single chamber hydro-pneumatic spring, double chamber hydro-pneumatic spring and two-stage pressure hydro-pneumatic spring.
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